Tyrannosaurs are more than just the single species Tyrannosaurus rex, though that’s the one most people think about. Tyrannosaurus is a genus, the next taxonomic order above a species, and consists of more than 30 species of dinosaur. These species fall into the group of dinosaurs known as theropods, and lived during the late Jurassic and throughout the Cretaceous periods. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most famous member of the genus, and the biggest physically. It is also one of the latest, living during the last three- to four-million years of the Cretaceous, right up to the end of the age of dinosaurs.
The number of Tyrannosaur fossils discovered to date has been so great (e.g., more than 30 skeletons of T. Rex, alone), that it has allowed scientists to study them as much or more than any other type of dinosaur.
Tyrannosaurs were bipedal carnivores, having long, heavy tails, relatively tiny (though very strong) front arms, and massive skulls. While other theropod dinosaurs equaled or exceeded T. rex in size, it was the largest known tyrannosaurid and one of the largest known land predators of its day, measuring up to 12.8 meters (42 ft.) in length, 4 meters (13 ft.) tall at the hips, and weighing as much as 6.8 metric tons.
While definitely a carnivore, scientists have long debated whether T. rex was an apex predator or a scavenger. The debate is one of the longest running arguments in all of paleontology.
The genus was widespread through the northern hemisphere, but until very recently was unknown from the southern one. In March, 2010, scientists from Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, reported the discovery of a tyrannosaurid hip bone from Dinosaur Cove in southern Victoria, Australia. This appears to be a smaller animal than T. rex, and likely a new species.
Researchers estimate that the animal was approximately three meters long and weighed about 80 kg. As such, it would have been similar to, though slightly larger than a human. It lived about 110 million years ago.
The following are a few of the Tyrannosaurus species that have been identified, who described them, and when they were described:
- Tyrannosaurus amplus (Marsh, 1892)
- Tyrannosaurus bataar (Maleev, 1955)
- Tyrannosaurus lanpingensis (Yeh, 1975)
- Tyrannosaurus luanchuanensis (Dong, 1979)
- Tyrannosaurus rex (Osborn, 1905)
- Tyrannosaurus turpanensis (Zhai, Zheng, and Tong, 1978)